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OT Language...Words Mean Things!

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Words Mean Things:
(Old Testament Language:  A Precedent for the New
& A Guide to Understanding Biblical Language)
(By Ryan McKittrick)

  
God Coming Down:
(Many Christians are surprised to know that God actually “came down” many times in the Old Testament.  This may be largely due to the fact that OT comings don’t “fit” the preconceived notions of what most think a “coming of God” looks like.  This misconception is exacerbated by popular teaching that tells Christians what the supposed future coming of Jesus will look like, void of its Old Testament backdr​op.  In order to understand Jesus’ coming, it is crucial to understand the Fathers’ comings in the Old Testament.  And we must begin that study by first realizing that indeed, God did “come down” many times in the Old Testament)
 
Genesis 11:7  Come, let Us go down and there confuse their language, so that they will not understand one another’s speech.
Exodus 3:8  So I have   come down  to deliver them from the power of the Egyptians, and to bring them up from that land to a good and spacious land, to a land flowing with milk and honey, to the place of the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Amorite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite.
Exodus 19:11  and let them be ready for the third day, for on the third day the Lord will come down on Mount Sinai in the sight of all the people.
Numbers 11:17  Then I will come down and speak with you there, and I will take of the Spirit who is upon you, and will put Himupon them; and they shall bear the burden of the people with you, so that you will not bear it all alone.
Numbers 12:5  Then the Lord came down in a pillar of cloud and stood at the doorway of the tent, and He called Aaron and Miriam.
Genesis 11:5  The Lord came down to see the city and the tower which the sons of men had built.
Exodus 19:20  The Lord came down on Mount Sinai, to the top of the mountain; and the Lord called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up.
Numbers 11:25:  Then the Lord came down in the cloud and spoke to him; and He took of the Spirit who was upon him and placed Him upon the seventy elders. And when the Spirit rested upon them, they prophesied. 
2 Samuel 22:10 He parted the heavens and came down; dark clouds were under his feet.
Isaiah 64:1  …that You would come down! That the mountains might shake at Your presence.


 
Clouds and Darkness = God’s Judgment:
(Old Testament language uses vivid, poetic imagery to depict impending judgment upon nations; images of the natural realm, such as clouds and darkness, which man can relate to, visualize, and understand.  The vehicle of judgment used by God normally came through, and in the form of another nation’s armies)

Clouds/Darkness/Gloominess:
 
Joel 2:31  The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD.
Joel 2:2  A day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick darkness, Like the morning clouds spread over the mountains.
Zephaniah 1:15  That day is a day of wrath, A day of trouble and distress, A day of devastation and desolation, A day of darkness and gloominess, A day of clouds and thick darkness,
Jeremiah 4:13  Behold, he shall come up like clouds, and his chariots like a whirlwind. His horses are swifter than eagles. Woe to us, for we are plundered!
Ezekiel 30:3  For the day is near, Even the day of the LORD is near; It will be a day of clouds, the time of the Gentiles.
Ezekiel 32:8  All the bright lights of the heavens I will make dark over you, And bring darkness upon your land…
Ezekiel 38:16  You will come up against My people Israel like a cloud, to cover the land.
Daniel 7:13  …And behold, One like the Son of Man, Coming with the clouds of heaven!
2 Samuel 22:10 He parted the heavens and came down; dark clouds were under his feet.
Job 37:13 He brings the clouds to punish people, or to water his earth and show his love.
Isaiah 5:6  I will lay it waste….I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain on it.”
Isaiah 5:30  In that day they will roar against them Like the roaring of the sea. And if one looks to the land, Behold, darkness and sorrow; And the light is darkened by the clouds.
Isaiah 30:27  See, the Name of the Lord comes from afar, with burning anger and dense clouds of smoke; his lips are full of wrath, and his tongue is a consuming fire.
Jeremiah 4:13   “Behold, he shall come up like clouds, And his chariots like a whirlwind. His horses are swifter than eagles. Woe to us, for we are plundered!”
Nahum 1:3  The Lord is slow to anger and great in power, And will not at all acquit the wicked. The Lord has His way in the whirlwind and in the storm, and the clouds are the dust of His feet.
Matthew 24:30  Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.
Matthew 26:64  Jesus said to him, “It is as you said. Nevertheless, I say to you, hereafter you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming on the clouds of heaven.”
Mark 13:26  Then they will see the Son of Man coming in the clouds with great power and glory.
Mark 14:62  Jesus said, “I am. And you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.”
Luke 21:27  Then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory
Revelation 1:7  Behold, He is coming with clouds, and every eye will see Him, even they who pierced Him. And all the tribes of the earth will mourn because of Him. Even so, Amen.

Day of the Lord, Day of Vengeance = God’s Wrath & Judgment:
(Old and New Testament alike portray the “Day of the Lord” as anytime God brings wrath and judgment upon those deserving of His wrath (usually nations).  It is a day to be feared by the ungodly where God’s righteous indignation repays the wicked through vengeance.  Again, the means through which God normally brought his judgment and vengeance came through, and in the form of another nation’s armies)

Day of the Lord:
 
Isaiah 2:12  For the day of the LORD of hosts shall come upon everything proud and lofty, upon everything lifted up…
Isaiah 13:6  Wail, for the day of the LORD is at hand! It will come as destruction from the Almighty.
Isaiah 13:9  Behold, the day of the LORD comes, Cruel, with both wrath and fierce anger, To lay the land desolate….
Jeremiah 46:10  For this is the day of the Lord GOD of hosts, A day of vengeance, That He may avenge Himself on His adversaries. The sword shall devour; It shall be satiated and made drunk with their blood….
Ezekiel 13:5  ….to build a wall for the house of Israel to stand in battle on the day of the LORD.
Ezekiel 30:3  For the day is near, Even the day of the LORD is near; It will be a day of clouds, the time of the Gentiles.
Joel 1:15  Alas for the day! For the day of the LORD is at hand; It shall come as destruction from the Almighty.
Joel 2:1  Blow the trumpet in Zion, And sound an alarm in My holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble; For the day of the LORD is coming, For it is at hand:
Joel 2:11  The LORD gives voice before His army, For His camp is very great; For strong is the One who executes His word. For the day of the LORD is great and very terrible; Who can endure it?
Joel 2:31  The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD.
Joel 3:14  Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision! For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision.
Amos 5:18  Woe to you who desire the day of the LORD! For what good is the day of the LORD to you? It will be darkness, and not light.
Amos 5:20  Is not the day of the LORD darkness, and not light? Is it not very dark, with no brightness in it?
Obadiah 1:15  For the day of the LORD upon all the nations is near; As you have done, it shall be done to you; Your reprisal shall return upon your own head.
Zephaniah 1:7  Be silent in the presence of the Lord GOD; For the day of the LORD is at hand, For the LORD has prepared a sacrifice; He has invited His guests.
Zephaniah 1:14  The great day of the LORD is near; It is near and hastens quickly. The noise of the day of the LORD is bitter; There the mighty men shall cry out.
Zechariah 14:1  Behold, the day of the LORD is coming, And your spoil will be divided in your midst.
Malachi 4:5  Behold, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the LORD.
Acts 2:20  The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the coming of the great and awesome day of the LORD.
1 Corinthians 5:5  …that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.
2 Corinthians 1:14  ….that we are your boast as you also are ours, in the day of the Lord Jesus.
1 Thessalonians 5:1-2  …for you yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so comes as a thief in the night.
2 Peter 3:10  But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. 
 
Day of Vengeance:
 
Proverbs 6:34 For jealousy is a husband’s fury; Therefore he will not spare in the day of vengeance.
Isaiah 34:8  For it is the day of the Lord’s vengeance, The year of recompense for the cause of Zion.
Isaiah 61:2  To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all who mourn,
Isaiah 63:4  For the day of vengeance is in My heart, And the year of My redeemed has come.
Jeremiah 46:10  For this is the day of the Lord God of hosts, A day of vengeance, That He may avenge Himself on His adversaries. The sword shall devour; It shall be satiated and made drunk with their blood….
Luke 21:22  For these are the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled.
Deuteronomy 32:35  Vengeance is Mine, and recompense; Their foot shall slip in due time; For the day of their calamity is at hand, And the things to come hasten upon them.’
Isaiah 34:8  For it is the day of the Lord’s vengeance, The year of recompense for the cause of Zion.
Ezekiel 16:43  Because you did not remember the days of your youth, but agitated Me with all these things, surely I will also recompense your deeds on your own head,” says the Lord God.
Hosea 9:7  The days of punishment have come; The days of recompense have come. Israel knows! The prophet is a fool, The spiritual man is insane, Because of the greatness of your iniquity and great enmity.
Luke 21:22  For these are the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled.
 
 
 
Shaking/Trembling = God’s Judgment & Wrath/Removal of the Wicked:
 (Old Testament language often uses colorful and poetic imagery to depict violence, aggression, and chaos…the kind of chaos that comes through God’s judgment in anger.  Images of things in the natural realm “shaking” and “trembling”, as in a violent earthquake, or storm wind is common imagery and stands in contrast to things that are steady, immovable, and on a solid foundation)
 
2 Samuel 22:8   …earth shook and trembled; the foundations of heaven quaked and were shaken because He was angry.
1 Kings 14:15  For the Lord will strike Israel, as a reed is shaken in the water. He will uproot Israel from this good land which He gave to their fathers, and will scatter them beyond the River, because they have made their wooden images, provoking the Lord to anger.
Nehemiah 5:13  Then I shook out the fold of my garment and said, “So may God shake out each man from his house, and from his property, who does not perform this promise. Even thus may he be shaken out and emptied.”
Job 15:33  He will shake off his unripe grape like a vine, And cast off his blossom like an olive tree.
Job 34:20  In a moment they die….The people are shaken and pass away; The mighty are taken away without a hand.
Psalm 18:7  The earth shook and trembled; The foundations of the hills also quaked and were shaken…He was angry.
Psalm 55:22  Cast your cares on the Lord and he will sustain you; he will never let the righteous be shaken..
Psalm 125:1   Those who trust in the Lord are like Mount Zion, which cannot be shaken but endures forever.
Isaiah 13:13  Therefore I will shake the heavens, And the earth will move out of her place, In the wrath of the Lord of hosts And in the day of His fierce anger.
Isaiah 30:28  His breath is like a rushing torrent, rising up to the neck. He shakes the nations in the sieve of destruction; he places in the jaws of the peoples a bit that leads them astray.
Ezekiel 31:16  I made the nations shake at the sound of its fall, when I cast it down to hell together with those who descend into the Pit…..
Joel 2:10   …the earth shakes, the heavens tremble, the sun and moon are darkened, and the stars no longer shine.
Joel 3:16  The Lord also will roar from Zion, And utter His voice from Jerusalem; The heavens and earth will shake; But the Lord will be a shelter for His people, And the strength of the children of Israel.
Amos 9:9   For I will give the command, and I will shake the people of Israel among all the nations as grain is shaken in a sieve, and not a pebble will reach the ground.
Haggai 2:6  …says the Lord of hosts: ‘Once more (it is a little while) I will shake heaven and earth, the sea and dry land;
Haggai 2:7  and I will shake all nations, and they shall come to the Desire of All Nations, and I will fill this temple with glory,’ says the Lord of hosts.
Zechariah 2:9  For surely I will shake My hand against them, and they shall become spoil for their servants…..
Psalm 99:1  The Lord reigns; Let the peoples tremble!  He dwells between the cherubim; Let the earth be moved!
Isaiah 5:25  Therefore the anger of the Lord is aroused against His people; He has stretched out His hand against them And stricken them, And the hills trembled.
Isaiah 23:11  The Lord has stretched out his hand over the sea and made its kingdoms tremble. He has given an order concerning Phoenicia that her fortresses be destroyed.
Jeremiah 4:24  I beheld the mountains, and indeed they trembled, And all the hills moved back and forth.
Jeremiah 10:10  But the Lord is the true God; He is the living God and the everlasting King.  At His wrath the earth will tremble, And the nations will not be able to endure His indignation.
Jeremiah 51:29  And the land will tremble and sorrow; for every purpose of the Lord shall be performed against Babylon, To make the land of Babylon a desolation without inhabitant.
Ezekiel 26:18  Now the coastlands tremble on the day of your fall; Yes, the coastlands by the sea are troubled at your departure.
Joel 2:1   Blow the trumpet in Zion, And sound an alarm in My holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble; For the day of the Lord is coming, For it is at hand:
Joel 2:10  The earth quakes before them, The heavens tremble; The sun and moon grow dark, And the stars diminish their brightness.
Joel 3:16  The Lord will roar from Zion and thunder from Jerusalem; the earth and the heavens will tremble. But the Lord will be a refuge for his people, a stronghold for the people of Israel.
Amos 8:8  Shall the land not tremble for this, And everyone mourn who dwells in it? All of it shall swell like the River, Heave and subside Like the River of Egypt.
Nahum 1:5  The mountains quake before him and the hills melt away. The earth trembles at his presence, the world and all who live in it.
Nahum 2:10  She is pillaged, plundered, stripped! Hearts melt, knees give way, bodies tremble, every face grows pale.
Habakkuk 3:7  I saw the tents of Cushan in affliction; The curtains of the land of Midian trembled.
Habakkuk 3:10  The mountains saw You and trembled; The overflowing of the water passed by. The deep uttered its voice, And lifted its hands on high.
Matthew 24:29  Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken.
Mark 13:25  the stars of heaven will fall, and the powers in the heavens will be shaken.
Luke 21:26  men’s hearts failing them from fear and the expectation of those things which are coming on the earth, for the powers of the heavens will be shaken.
Acts 2:25  David said about him: I saw the Lord always before me. Because he is at my right hand, I will not be shaken.
Hebrews 12:26-27  whose voice then shook the earth; but now He has promised, saying, “Yet once more I shake not only the earth, but also heaven.”  Now this, “Yet once more,” indicates the removal of those things that are being shaken, as of things that are made, that the things which cannot be shaken may remain.
Hebrews 12:28  Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom which cannot be shaken, let us have grace, by which we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly fear.
Revelation 6:13  ..the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as a fig tree drops its late figs when it is shaken by a mighty wind.


 
The Heavens, Earth, and Sea = The Temple Model
(Jews considered their Temple to be a model of their universe.  The most holy place, where God dwelt, was “heaven”. The inner court where the Jews worshipped was “earth” (or “land”).  The outer court where the Gentiles could go was the “sea”.  Thus, the “heavens and earth” in that context conveyed the socio-political organization, or order of a nation.  So then, the term “new heavens and new earth” did not have a strictly physical/literal meaning to the Hebraic mind.  Rather, the term carried covenantal meaning or implications as the old order of things would give way to a new order)

 
The Heaven(s) and Earth = Creation/Covenant Language
 
Genesis 1:1  In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
Leviticus 26:19  I will break the pride of your power; I will make your heavens like iron and your earth like bronze.
Deuteronomy 4:26  I call the heavens and the earth as witnesses against you this day that you will quickly perish from the land that you are crossing the Jordan to possess. You will not live there long but will certainly be destroyed.
Deuteronomy 30:19  This day I call the heavens and the earth as witnesses against you that I have set before you life and death, blessings and curses. Now choose life, so that you and your children may live
Deuteronomy 31:28  Assemble before me all the elders of your tribes and all your officials, so that I can speak these words in their hearing and call the heavens and the earth to testify against them.
Deuteronomy 32:1   “Give ear, O heavens, and I will speak; And hear, O earth, the words of my mouth.
1 Chronicles 16:31  ...heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad; And let them say among the nations, “The Lord reigns.”
Psalm 50:4  He shall call to the heavens from above, And to the earth, that He may judge His people…
Psalm 102:25  Of old You laid the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the work of Your hands.
Isaiah 1:2  Hear, O heavens, and give ear, O earth! For the Lord has spoken: “I have nourished and brought up children, And they have rebelled against Me;
Isaiah 13:13  Therefore I will shake the heavens, And the earth will move out of her place, In the wrath of the Lord of hosts And in the day of His fierce anger.
Isaiah 24:4  The earth dries up and withers, the world languishes and withers, the heavens languish with the earth.
Isaiah 45:8   Rain down, you heavens, from above, And let the skies pour down righteousness; Let the earth open, let them bring forth salvation, And let righteousness spring up together. I, the Lord, have created it.
Isaiah 49:13  Sing, O heavens! Be joyful, O earth! And break out in singing, O mountains! For the Lord has comforted His people, And will have mercy on His afflicted.
Isaiah 51:6  Lift up your eyes to the heavens, And look on the earth beneath. For the heavens will vanish away like smoke, The earth will grow old like a garment, And those who dwell in it will die in like manner; But My salvation will be forever, And My righteousness will not be abolished.
Isaiah 51:13  …you forget the Lord your Maker, Who stretched out the heavens and laid the foundations of the earth…
Isaiah 51:16  And I have put My words in your mouth; I have covered you with the shadow of My hand, That I may plant the heavens, Lay the foundations of the earth, And say to Zion, ‘You are My people.’”
Isaiah 65:17  ….I create new heavens and a new earth; And the former shall not be remembered or come to mind.
Isaiah 66:22   “For as the new heavens and the new earth which I will make shall remain before Me,” says the Lord, “So shall your descendants and your name remain.
Jeremiah 4:23  I beheld the earth, and indeed it was without form, and void; And the heavens, they had no light.
Jeremiah 4:28  For this shall the earth mourn, And the heavens above be black, Because I have spoken. I have purposed and will not relent, Nor will I turn back from it.
Jeremiah 51:48  Then the heavens and the earth and all that is in them Shall sing joyously over Babylon; For the plunderers shall come to her from the north,” says the Lord.
Hosea 2:21   “It shall come to pass in that day That I will answer,” says the Lord; “I will answer the heavens, And they shall answer the earth.
Joel 3:16  The Lord also will roar from Zion, And utter His voice from Jerusalem; The heavens and earth will shake; But the Lord will be a shelter for His people, And the strength of the children of Israel.
Haggai 2:6   “This is what the Lord Almighty says: ‘In a little while I will once more shake the heavens and the earth, the sea and the dry land.
Haggai 2:21   “Tell Zerubbabel governor of Judah that I am going to shake the heavens and the earth.
Matthew 24:35  Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will by no means pass away.
2 Peter 3:5  For this they willfully forget: that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of water and in the water,
2 Peter 3:7  But the heavens and the earth which are now preserved by the same word, are reserved for fire until the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men.
2 Peter 3:10  But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up.
2 Peter 3:13  ….we, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells.
Revelation 10:6  And he swore by him who lives for ever and ever, who created the heavens and all that is in them, the earth and all that is in it, and the sea and all that is in it, and said, “There will be no more delay!
Revelation 12:12  Therefore rejoice, O heavens, and you who dwell in them! Woe to the inhabitants of the earth and the sea! For the devil has come down to you, having great wrath, because he knows that he has a short time.


 
The Sea = The Nations/Gentile Peoples:
(Given the poetic and figurative nature of Hebraic language in Scripture, the “sea” is often representative or symbolic of other nations…meaning nations or peoples other than Israel.  And just as the seas can be very unpredictable, and tumultuous, so too the foreign and heathen nations were seen to be potentially chaotic, unsettled, and dangerous) 
 
Isaiah 23:11  The Lord has stretched out his hand over the sea and made its kingdoms tremble. He has given an order concerning Phoenicia that her fortresses be destroyed.
Isaiah 17:12  Woe to the many nations that rage— they rage like the raging sea! Woe to the peoples who roar— they roar like the roaring of great waters!
Isaiah 57:20  But the wicked are like the tossing sea, which cannot rest, whose waves cast up mire and mud.
Psalm 93:3  ….the seas have lifted up their voice; the seas have lifted up their pounding waves.
Psalm 96:11  Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad; Let the sea roar, and all its fullness;
Isaiah 60:5  …the wealth on the seas will be brought to you, to you the riches of the nations will come.
Ezekiel 28:2   “Son of man, say to the prince of Tyre, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “Because your heart is lifted up, And you say, ‘I am a god, I sit in the seat of gods, In the midst of the seas…”
Ezekiel 28:8  They shall throw you down into the Pit, And you shall die the death of the slain In the midst of the seas.
Ezekiel 32:2   “Son of man, take up a lamentation for Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say to him: ‘You are like a young lion among the nations, And you are like a monster in the seas, bursting forth in your rivers, troubling the waters….
Hosea 4:3  Therefore the land will mourn; and everyone who dwells there will waste away with the beasts of the field and the birds of the air; even the fish of the sea will be taken away.
Habakkuk 1:14  You have made people like the fish in the sea, like the sea creatures that have no ruler.
Habakkuk 3:8  O Lord, were You displeased with the rivers, was Your anger against the rivers, was Your wrath against the sea, That You rode on Your horses, Your chariots of salvation?
Zephaniah 1:3   “I will consume man and beast; I will consume the birds of the heavens, the fish of the sea, and the stumbling blocks along with the wicked. I will cut off man from the face of the land,” Says the Lord.
Haggai 2:6   …In a little while I will once more shake the heavens and the earth, the sea and the dry land.
Zechariah 9:4  Behold, the Lord will cast her out; He will destroy her power in the sea, And she will be devoured by fire.
Zechariah 10:11  He shall pass through the sea with affliction, and strike the waves of the sea: All the depths of the River shall dry up. Then the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, and the scepter of Egypt shall depart.
Isaiah 60:5  Then you will look and be radiant, your heart will throb and swell with joy; the wealth on the seas will be brought to you, to you the riches of the nations will come.


Sun/Moon/Stars = Political Entities or Structures/ Hierarchy of Powers 
(Just as heaven is “up” and higher than earth, so too the Old Testament portrays the hosts of heaven (the sun, moon, and stars “up” in the heavens) as representative of authorities, or a hierarchy of power, whether political/government entities or individual people.  Thus, the sun, moon, and stars often served as symbols of ruling authorities and powers) 
 
Genesis 37:9  Then he dreamed still another dream and told it to his brothers, and said, “Look, I have dreamed another dream. And this time, the sun, the moon, and the eleven stars bowed down to me.”
Psalm 148:3  Praise Him, sun and moon; Praise Him, all you stars of light!
Isaiah 13:10  For the stars of heaven and their constellations Will not give their light; The sun will be darkened in its going forth, And the moon will not cause its light to shine.
Jeremiah 8:2  They will be exposed to the sun and the moon and all the stars of the heavens, which they have loved and served and which they have followed and consulted and worshiped.
Ezekiel 32:7  When I put out your light, I will cover the heavens, and make its stars dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, And the moon shall not give her light.
Joel 2:10  The earth quakes…the heavens tremble; The sun and moon grow dark, And the stars diminish their brightness.
Joel 3:15  The sun and moon will grow dark, And the stars will diminish their brightness.
Matthew 24:29  Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken.
Luke 21:25  And there will be signs in the sun, in the moon, and in the stars; and on the earth distress of nations, with perplexity, the sea and the waves roaring;
Acts 7:42  But God turned away from them and gave them over to the worship of the sun, moon and stars. This agrees with what is written in the book of the prophets: “‘Did you bring me sacrifices and offerings forty years in the wilderness, people of Israel?
1 Corinthians 15:41  There is one glory of the sun, another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for one star differs from another star in glory.
Revelation 8:12  Then the fourth angel sounded: And a third of the sun was struck, a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of them were darkened. A third of the day did not shine, and likewise the night.
Revelation 12:1  Now a great sign appeared in heaven: a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a garland of twelve stars.

 
Holy Mountain (or Hill) / Mt. Zion / Mountain of the Lord / Holy City
( = God’s City / Where God Dwells / Jerusalem, The “Capital” of His Kingdom)
(The Old Testament consistently uses different expressions to describe the same place.  God’s “holy mountain” is “Mt. Zion”, and Mt. Zion is a “hill” where God dwells with His people.  It is a “holy city”, namely “Jerusalem”.  God established an Old Covenant typological earthly city that was inhabited by God’s physical people Israel in a physical land.  However, that Old Covenant city was a mere shadow, pointing toward the “heavenly city”, “a New Jerusalem” that came down to God’s New Covenant spiritual people, the Church.  We see this come to fruition in the New Testament)

 
Holy Mountain/Hill:
 
Psalm 48:1  Great is the Lord, and greatly to be praised In the city of our God, in His holy mountain. 
Isaiah 11:9  They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord As the waters cover the sea. 
Isaiah 56:7  Even them I will bring to My holy mountain, And make them joyful in My house of prayer. Their burnt offerings and their sacrifices Will be accepted on My altar; For My house shall be called a house of prayer for all nations.
Isaiah 57:13  When you cry out, Let your collection of idols deliver you. But the wind will carry them all away, A breath will take them. But he who puts his trust in Me shall possess the land, And shall inherit My holy mountain.
Isaiah 65:11  But you are those who forsake the Lord, Who forget My holy mountain, Who prepare a table for Gad, And who furnish a drink offering for Meni. 
Isaiah 65:25  The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, The lion shall eat straw like the ox, And dust shall be the serpent’s food. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain, Says the Lord. 
Isaiah 66:20  Then they shall bring all your brethren for an offering to the Lord out of all nations, on horses and in chariots and in litters, on mules and on camels, to My holy mountain Jerusalem, says the Lord, as the children of Israel bring an offering in a clean vessel into the house of the Lord.
Ezekiel 20:40  For on My holy mountain, on the mountain height of Israel, says the Lord God, there all the house of Israel, all of them in the land, shall serve Me; there I will accept them…. 
Ezekiel 28:14  You were the anointed cherub who covers; I established you; You were on the holy mountain of God; Daniel 9:16  O Lord, according to all Your righteousness, I pray, let Your anger and Your fury be turned away from Your city Jerusalem, Your holy mountain; because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and Your people are a reproach to all those around us. 
Daniel 9:20  Now while I was speaking, praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the Lord my God for the holy mountain of my God…
Daniel 11:45  And he shall plant the tents of his palace between the seas and the glorious holy mountain….. 
Joel 2:1  Blow the trumpet in Zion, sound an alarm in My holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble...
 Joel 3:17  So you shall know that I am the Lord your God, Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain. Then Jerusalem shall be holy, and no aliens shall ever pass through her again.
Obadiah 1:16  For as you drank on My holy mountain, So shall all the nations drink continually; Yes, they shall drink… 
Zephaniah 3:11  …For then I will take away from your midst those who rejoice in your pride, And you shall no longer be haughty in My holy mountain. 
Zechariah 8:3  Thus says the Lord: I will return to Zion, And dwell in the midst of Jerusalem.  Jerusalem shall be called the City of Truth, the Mountain of the Lord of hosts, the Holy Mountain. 
2 Peter 1:18  And we heard this voice which came from heaven when we were with Him on the holy mountain. 
Psalm 3:4  I cried to the Lord with my voice, And He heard me from His holy hill.
Psalm 15:1  Lord, who may abide in Your tabernacle? Who may dwell in Your holy hill?
Psalm 43:3  …Let them lead me; Let them bring me to Your holy hill And to Your tabernacle. 
Psalm 99:9  Exalt the Lord our God, And worship at His holy hill; For the Lord our God is holy. 
 
Mount Zion:
 
2 Kings 19:31  For out of Jerusalem shall go a remnant, And those who escape from Mount Zion.
Psalm 48:2  …the joy of the whole earth, is Mount Zion on the sides of the north, The city of the great King. 
Psalm 48:11  Let Mount Zion rejoice, Let the daughters of Judah be glad, Because of Your judgments. 
Psalm 74:2  Remember Your congregation, which You have purchased of old, The tribe of Your inheritance, which You have redeemed— This Mount Zion where You have dwelt. 
Psalm 78:68  But chose the tribe of Judah, Mount Zion which He loved.  
Psalm 125:1  Those who trust in the Lord Are like Mount Zion, Which cannot be moved, but abides forever. 
Isaiah 4:5  then the Lord will create above every dwelling place of Mount Zion, and above her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day and the shining of a flaming fire by night. For over all the glory there will be a covering. 
Isaiah 8:18  Here am I and the children whom the Lord has given me! We are for signs and wonders in Israel from the Lord of hosts, Who dwells in Mount Zion. 
Isaiah 10:12  …it shall come to pass, when the Lord has performed all His work on Mount Zion and on Jerusalem, that He will say, “I will punish the fruit of the arrogant heart of the king of Assyria, and the glory of his haughty looks.”
Isaiah 18:7  …to the place of the name of the Lord of hosts, to Mount Zion. 
Isaiah 24:23  …for the Lord of hosts will reign On Mount Zion and in Jerusalem and before His elders, gloriously. 
Isaiah 29:8  …so the multitude of all the nations shall be, Who fight against Mount Zion 
Isaiah 31:4  So the Lord of hosts will come down To fight for Mount Zion and for its hill. 
Isaiah 37:32  For out of Jerusalem shall go a remnant, and those who escape from Mount Zion. 
Lamentations 5:18  Because of Mount Zion which is desolate, with foxes walking about on it. 
Joel 2:31  And it shall come to pass that whoever calls on the name of the Lord shall be saved.  For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance, As the Lord has said, Among the remnant whom the Lord calls. 
Obadiah 1:17  But on Mount Zion there shall be deliverance, and there shall be holiness; the house of Jacob shall possess their possessions. 
Obadiah 1:21  …saviors shall come to Mount Zion to judge the mountains of Esau, and the kingdom shall be the Lord’s. 
Micah 4:7  I will make the lame a remnant, And the outcast a strong nation; So the Lord will reign over them in Mount Zion from now on, even forever. 
Hebrews 12:22  But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels…
Revelation 14:1  Then I looked, and behold, a Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred and forty-four thousand, having His Father’s name written on their foreheads. 
 
Mountain of the Lord:
 
Numbers 10:33  So they departed from the mountain of the Lord on a journey of three days; and the ark of the covenant of the Lord went before them for the three days’ journey, to search out a resting place for them. 
Isaiah 2:3  Many people shall come and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, And we shall walk in His paths. For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. 
Isaiah 30:29  You shall have a song As in the night when a holy festival is kept, And gladness of heart as when one goes with a flute, To come into the mountain of the Lord, To the Mighty One of Israel. 
Micah 4:2  Many nations shall come and say, “Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, To the house of the God of Jacob; He will teach us His ways, And we shall walk in His paths.” For out of Zion the law shall go forth, And the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. 
Zechariah 8:3  Thus says the Lord: ‘I will return to Zion, and dwell in the midst of Jerusalem.  Jerusalem shall be called the City of Truth, the Mountain of the Lord of hosts, The Holy Mountain.’
 
Holy City:
 
Nehemiah 11:1  Now the leaders of the people dwelt at Jerusalem; the rest of the people cast lots to bring one out of ten to dwell in Jerusalem, the holy city, and nine-tenths were to dwell in other cities. 
Nehemiah 11:18  All the Levites in the holy city were two hundred and eighty-four. 
Isaiah 48:2  For they call themselves after the holy city, And lean on the God of Israel; The Lord of hosts is His name…
Isaiah 52:1  Awake, awake! Put on your strength, O Zion; Put on your beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city! For the uncircumcised and the unclean shall no longer come to you. 
Daniel 9:24  Seventy weeks are determined For your people and for your holy city, To finish the transgression, To make an end of sins, To make reconciliation for iniquity, To bring in everlasting righteousness, To seal up vision and prophecy, And to anoint the Most Holy. 
Matthew 4:5  Then the devil took Him up into the holy city, set Him on the pinnacle of the temple…
Matthew 27:53 and coming out of the graves after His resurrection, they went into the holy city and appeared to many.
Revelation 11:2  But leave out the court which is outside the temple, and do not measure it, for it has been given to the Gentiles. And they will tread the holy city underfoot for forty-two months. 
Revelation 21:2  Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God…. 
Revelation 22:19  and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.
 
 
Beasts = Ungodly/Pagan Nations or People:
(The Old Testament often uses metaphors to paint pictures of ungodly, pagan nations and people.  Just as various “beasts” can be unclean, fierce, and even deadly, so too the wicked.  The Old Testament portrays the ungodly heathen peoples as ravenous predators and God’s people as gentle, less threatening animals, such as sheep/lambs) 
  
Beasts:
 
Leviticus 26:6  I will give peace in the land, and you shall lie down, and none will make you afraid; I will rid the land of evil beasts, and the sword will not go through your land.
Leviticus 26:22  I will also send wild beasts among you, which shall rob you of your children, destroy your livestock, and make you few in number; and your highways shall be desolate.
Deuteronomy 28:26  Your carcasses shall be food for all the birds of the air and the beasts of the earth, and no one shall frighten them away.
Deuteronomy 32:24  They shall be wasted with hunger, Devoured by pestilence and bitter destruction; I will also send against them the teeth of beasts, With the poison of serpents of the dust.
Psalm 57:4  I am in the midst of lions; I am forced to dwell among ravenous beasts— men whose teeth are spears and arrows, whose tongues are sharp swords.
Psalm 68:30  Rebuke the beasts of the reeds, The herd of bulls with the calves of the peoples, Till everyone submits himself with pieces of silver. Scatter the peoples who delight in war.
Isaiah 13:21  But wild beasts of the desert will lie there, And their houses will be full of owls; Ostriches will dwell there, And wild goats will caper there.
Isaiah 18:6  They will be left together for the mountain birds of prey And for the beasts of the earth; The birds of prey will summer on them, And all the beasts of the earth will winter on them.
Isaiah 23:13  Behold, the land of the Chaldeans, This people which was not; Assyria founded it for wild beasts of the desert. They set up its towers, They raised up its palaces, And brought it to ruin.
Isaiah 30:6  The burden against the beasts of the South. Through a land of trouble and anguish, From which came the lioness and lion, The viper and fiery flying serpent, They will carry their riches on the backs of young donkeys, And their treasures on the humps of camels, To a people who shall not profit;
Isaiah 34:14  The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the jackals, And the wild goat shall bleat to its companion; Also the night creature shall rest there, And find for herself a place of rest.
Isaiah 56:9  Come, all you beasts of the field, come and devour, all you beasts of the forest!
Therefore a lion from the forest shall slay them,
Jeremiah 12:9  My heritage is to Me like a speckled vulture; The vultures all around are against her. Come, assemble all the beasts of the field, Bring them to devour!
Jeremiah 27:6  And now I have given all these lands into the hand of Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon, My servant; and the beasts of the field I have also given him to serve him.
Jeremiah 50:39   Therefore the wild desert beasts shall dwell there with the jackals, And the ostriches shall dwell in it. It shall be inhabited no more forever, Nor shall it be dwelt in from generation to generation.
Ezekiel 14:15   If I cause wild beasts to pass through the land, and they empty it, and make it so desolate that no man may pass through because of the beasts,
Ezekiel 31:6  All the birds of the heavens made their nests in its boughs; Under its branches all the beasts of the field brought forth their young; And in its shadow all great nations made their home.
Ezekiel 34:25   “I will make a covenant of peace with them, and cause wild beasts to cease from the land; and they will dwell safely in the wilderness and sleep in the woods.
Ezekiel 34:28  And they shall no longer be a prey for the nations, nor shall beasts of the land devour them; but they shall dwell safely, and no one shall make them afraid.
Daniel 7:3  And four great beasts came up from the sea, each different from the other.
Daniel 7:7   “After this I saw in the night visions, and behold, a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, exceedingly strong. It had huge iron teeth; it was devouring, breaking in pieces, and trampling the residue with its feet. It was different from all the beasts that were before it, and it had ten horns.
Daniel 7:12  As for the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away, yet their lives were prolonged for a season and a time.
Daniel 7:17   ‘Those great beasts, which are four, are four kings which arise out of the earth.
Hosea 2:18  In that day I will make a covenant for them With the beasts of the field, With the birds of the air, And with the creeping things of the ground. Bow and sword of battle I will shatter from the earth, To make them lie down safely.
Micah 5:8  And the remnant of Jacob Shall be among the Gentiles, In the midst of many peoples, Like a lion among the beasts of the forest, Like a young lion among flocks of sheep, Who, if he passes through, Both treads down and tears in pieces, And none can deliver.
Acts 11:6  When I observed it intently and considered, I saw four-footed animals of the earth, wild beasts, creeping things, and birds of the air.
Titus 1:12  One of them, a prophet of their own, said, “Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.”
2 Peter 2:12  But these, like natural brute beasts made to be caught and destroyed, speak evil of the things they do not understand, and will utterly perish in their own corruption,
Jude 1:10  But these speak evil of whatever they do not know; and whatever they know naturally, like brute beasts, in these things they corrupt themselves.
Revelation 6:8  So I looked, and behold, a pale horse. And the name of him who sat on it was Death, and Hades followed with him. And power was given to them over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword, with hunger, with death, and by the beasts of the earth.


Wolves, Lions, Jackals, Leopards, Bulls, Snakes, Dogs:
 
Jeremiah 5:6  Therefore a lion from the forest shall slay them, a wolf of the deserts shall destroy them; A leopard will watch over their cities. Everyone who goes out from there shall be torn in pieces, because their transgressions are many.
Genesis 49:27  Benjamin is a ravenous wolf; in the morning he devours the prey, in the evening he divides the plunder.
Ezekiel 22:27  Her princes in her midst are like wolves tearing the prey, to shed blood, to destroy people, and to get dishonest gain.
Zephaniah 3:3  Her princes in her midst are roaring lions; Her judges are evening wolves that leave not a bone…
Psalm 22:12-13  Many bulls have surrounded me…they gape at Me with their mouths, Like a raging and roaring lion.
Psalm 22:16   For dogs have surrounded Me; the congregation of the wicked has enclosed Me
Psalm 22:21  Save Me from the lion’s mouth And from the horns of the wild oxen! You have answered Me.
Psalm 57:4  My soul is among lions; I lie among the sons of men who are set on fire, Whose teeth are spears and arrows, And their tongue a sharp sword.
Psalm 91:13  You shall tread upon the lion and the cobra, The young lion and the serpent you shall trample underfoot.
Proverbs 28:15  Like a roaring lion or a charging bear is a wicked ruler over a helpless people.
Isaiah 11:6   The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, The leopard shall lie down with the young goat, The calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.
Isaiah 11:7  The cow and the bear shall graze; their young ones shall lie down together; And the lion shall eat straw like the ox.
Isaiah 30:6  The burden against the beasts of the South. Through a land of trouble and anguish, from which came the lioness and lion, The viper and fiery flying serpent, They will carry their riches on the backs of young donkeys…
Isaiah 35:9  No lion shall be there, Nor shall any ravenous beast go up on it; It shall not be found there. But the redeemed shall walk there,
Isaiah 65:25  The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, The lion shall eat straw like the ox, and dust shall be the serpent’s food. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain,” Says the Lord.
Jeremiah 5:6  Therefore a lion from the forest shall slay them, A wolf of the deserts shall destroy them; A leopard will watch over their cities. Everyone who goes out from there shall be torn in pieces, because their transgressions are many.
Jeremiah 50:17   Israel is like scattered sheep; The lions have driven him away; first the king of Assyria devoured him;
Now at last this Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon has broken his bones.
Isaiah 13:22  The hyenas will howl in their citadels, And jackals in their pleasant palaces. Her time is near to come…
Isaiah 43:20  The beast of the field will honor Me, The jackals and the ostriches, because I give waters in the wilderness and rivers in the desert, to give drink to My people, My chosen.
Lamentations 5:18  for Mount Zion, which lies desolate, with jackals prowling over it.
Ezekiel 13:4  Your prophets, Israel, are like jackals among ruins.
Ezekiel 32:2   Son of man, take up a lamentation for Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say to him: ‘You are like a young lion among the nations, And you are like a monster in the seas, bursting forth in your rivers, troubling the waters…..

 
One Thousand (1000): 
(In the Old Testament, one thousand (1,000) is not always used in the strict literal sense…that is, the exact amount of one thousand (not 999 or 1,001…but exactly 1,000).  When it is, it is used in context to such things as money amounts, or a nation’s or tribe’s population (ie-Numbers).  Otherwise, “one thousand” is often used to metaphorically represent and communicate an idea, sometimes in a poetic style, and/or hyperbolically) 
 
Exodus 20:6  …but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my commandments
Exodus 34:7  keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving iniquity and transgression and sin, by no means clearing the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children and the children’s children to the third and the fourth generation.”
Leviticus 26:8  Five of you will chase a hundred, and a hundred of you will chase ten thousand, and your enemies will fall by the sword before you.
Deuteronomy 1:11  May the Lord, the God of your ancestors, increase you a thousand times and bless you as he has promised!
Deuteronomy 5:10  but showing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments.
Deuteronomy 7:9  Know therefore that the Lord your God is God; he is the faithful God, keeping his covenant of love to a thousand generations of those who love him and keep his commandments.
1 Samuel 18:7  …as they danced, and said: “Saul has slain his thousands, And David his ten thousands.”
Job 9:3  If one wished to contend with Him, He could not answer Him one time out of a thousand.
Psalm 50:10  For every beast of the forest is Mine, And the cattle on a thousand hills.
Psalm 68:17  The chariots of God are tens of thousands and thousands of thousands…
Psalm 84:10  For a day in Your courts is better than a thousand.
Psalm 90:4  a thousand years in your sight are like a day that has just gone by, or like a watch in the night.
Psalm 105:8  He remembers His covenant forever, The word which He commanded, for a thousand generations,
Psalm 119:72  The law of Your mouth is better to me Than thousands of coins of gold and silver.
Ecclesiastes 6:6  even if he lives a thousand years twice—but has not seen goodness. Do not all go to one place?
Isaiah 30:17  A thousand will flee at the threat of one; at the threat of five you will all flee away, till you are left like a flagstaff on a mountaintop, like a banner on a hill.”
Isaiah 60:22  A little one shall become a thousand, and a small one a strong nation. I, the Lord, will hasten it in its time.
Jeremiah 32:18  You show love to thousands but bring the punishment for the parents’ sins into the laps of their children after them. Great and mighty God, whose name is the Lord Almighty,
Daniel 7:10  A fiery stream issued And came forth from before Him. A thousand thousands ministered to Him; ten thousand times ten thousand stood before Him. The court was seated, And the books were opened.
Amos 5:3  For thus says the Lord God: “The city that goes out by a thousand Shall have a hundred left, And that which goes out by a hundred Shall have ten left to the house of Israel.”
1 Corinthians 14:19  yet in the church I would rather speak five words with my understanding, that I may teach others also, than ten thousand words in a tongue.
Hebrews 12:22  But you have come to Mount Zion, to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem. You have come to thousands upon thousands of angels in joyful assembly,
2 Peter 3:8  …that with the Lord one day is as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day.
Jude 1:14  Now Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied about these men also, saying, “Behold, the Lord comes with ten thousands of His saints,
Revelation 5:11  Then I looked, and I heard the voice of many angels around the throne, the living creatures, and the elders; and the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand, and thousands of thousands,
Revelation 7:4  And I heard the number of those who were sealed. One hundred and forty-four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel were sealed:
Revelation 9:16  The number of the mounted troops was twice ten thousand times ten thousand. I heard their number.
Revelation 11:13  In the same hour there was a great earthquake, and a tenth of the city fell. In the earthquake seven thousand people were killed, and the rest were afraid and gave glory to the God of heaven.
Revelation 14:1  Then I looked, and behold, a Lamb standing on Mount Zion, and with Him one hundred and forty-four thousand, having His Father’s name written on their foreheads.
Revelation 14:3  They sang as it were a new song before the throne, before the four living creatures, and the elders; and no one could learn that song except the hundred and forty-four thousand who were redeemed from the earth.
Revelation 20:2  He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years;
Revelation 20:3  He threw him into the Abyss, and locked and sealed it over him, to keep him from deceiving the nations anymore until the thousand years were ended. After that, he must be set free for a short time.
Revelation 20:4  And I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was committed to them. Then I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for their witness to Jesus and for the word of God, who had not worshiped the beast or his image, and had not received his mark on their foreheads or on their hands. And they lived and reigned with Christ for a thousand years.
Revelation 20:5  But the rest of the dead did not live again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection.
Revelation 20:6  Blessed and holy is he who has part in the first resurrection. Over such the second death has no power, but they shall be priests of God and of Christ, and shall reign with Him a thousand years.
Revelation 20:7  Now when the thousand years have expired, Satan will be released from his prison
Revelation 21:16  The city is laid out as a square; its length is as great as its breadth. And he measured the city with the reed: twelve thousand furlongs. Its length, breadth, and height are equal.

 
 
Israel as a Vine/Vineyard/Olive Tree/Fig Tree/Branches
(The Old Testament uses “husbandry language” to symbolically and metaphorically describe God’s people, Israel.    Just as things that are planted and nourished are expected to grow and be healthy, Scripture paints a picture of Israel as a nation that God Himself planted and watered, and with the expectation and hope that His “vineyard” would “grow” and remain healthy and obedient to Him (Isaiah 5). 

Vine:
 
Psalm 80:8  You have brought a vine out of Egypt; You have cast out the nations, and planted it.
Psalm 80:14 Return, we beseech You, O God of hosts; Look down from heaven and see, And visit this vine
Psalm 128:3  Your wife shall be like a fruitful vine In the very heart of your house, Your children like olive plants All around your table. 
Isaiah 5:2  He dug it up and cleared out its stones, And planted it with the choicest vine. He built a tower in its midst, And also made a winepress in it; So He expected it to bring forth good grapes, But it brought forth wild grapes. 
Jeremiah 2:21  Yet I had planted you a noble vine, a seed of highest quality. How then have you turned before Me Into the degenerate plant of an alien vine? 
Joel 1:7  He has laid waste My vine, And ruined My fig tree; He has stripped it bare and thrown it away; Its branches are made white. 
Joel 1:12  The vine has dried up, And the fig tree has withered; The pomegranate tree, The palm tree also, And the apple tree— All the trees of the field are withered; Surely joy has withered away from the sons of men. 
Zechariah 8:12  For the seed shall be prosperous, The vine shall give its fruit, The ground shall give her increase, And the heavens shall give their dew— I will cause the remnant of this people To possess all these. 
John 15:1  I am the true vine, and My Father is the vinedresser. 
John 15:4  Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in Me. 
John 15:5  I am the vine, you are the branches. He who abides in Me, and I in him, bears much fruit; for without Me you can do nothing. 
Revelation 14:18  And another angel came out from the altar, who had power over fire, and he cried with a loud cry to him who had the sharp sickle, saying, “Thrust in your sharp sickle and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth, for her grapes are fully ripe.” 
Revelation 14:19  So the angel thrust his sickle into the earth and gathered the vine of the earth, and threw it into the great winepress
 
Vineyard:
 
Psalm 80:15  And the vineyard which Your right hand has planted, And the branch that You made strong for Yourself. Isaiah 5:1  Now let me sing to my Well-beloved A song of my Beloved regarding His vineyard: My Well-beloved has a vineyard On a very fruitful hill. 
Isaiah 5:3  And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, Judge, please, between Me and My vineyard.
Isaiah 5:4  What more could have been done to My vineyard That I have not done in it? Why then, when I expected it to bring forth good grapes, Did it bring forth wild grapes? 
Isaiah 5:5  And now, please let Me tell you what I will do to My vineyard: I will take away its hedge, and it shall be burned; And break down its wall, and it shall be trampled down. 
Isaiah 5:7  For the vineyard of the Lord of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah are His pleasant plant. He looked for justice, but behold, oppression; For righteousness, but behold, a cry for help.
Jeremiah 12:10  Many rulers have destroyed My vineyard, They have trodden My portion underfoot; They have made My pleasant portion a desolate wilderness. 
Matthew 20:1  For the kingdom of heaven is like a landowner who went out early in the morning to hire laborers for his vineyard. 
Matthew 20:2  Now when he had agreed with the laborers for a denarius a day, he sent them into his vineyard.
Matthew 20:8  So when evening had come, the owner of the vineyard said to his steward, ‘Call the laborers and give them their wages, beginning with the last to the first.’ 
Matthew 21:39 So they took him and cast him out of the vineyard and killed him. 
Matthew 21:40  Therefore, when the owner of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those vinedressers?
Matthew 21:41  They said to Him, “He will destroy those wicked men miserably, and lease his vineyard to other vinedressers who will render to him the fruits in their seasons.” 
Mark 12:1  Then He began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard and set a hedge around it, dug a place for the wine vat and built a tower. And he leased it to vinedressers and went into a far country. 
Mark 12:2  Now at vintage-time he sent a servant to the vinedressers, that he might receive some of the fruit of the vineyard from the vinedressers. 
Mark 12:8  So they took him and killed him and cast him out of the vineyard. 
Mark 12:9  Therefore what will the owner of the vineyard do? He will come and destroy the vinedressers, and give the vineyard to others. 
Luke 13:6  A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came seeking fruit on it and found none. 
Luke 13:7  Then he said to the keeper of his vineyard, ‘Look, for three years I have come seeking fruit on this fig tree and find none. Cut it down; why does it use up the ground?’ 
Luke 20:9  Then He began to tell the people this parable: “A certain man planted a vineyard, leased it to vinedressers, and went into a far country for a long time. 
Luke 20:10  Now at vintage-time he sent a servant to the vinedressers, that they might give him some of the fruit of the vineyard. But the vinedressers beat him and sent him away empty-handed. 
Luke 20:13 Then the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What shall I do? I will send my beloved son. Probably they will respect him when they see him.’ 
Luke 20:15  …cast him out of the vineyard and killed him. Therefore what will the owner of the vineyard do to them? 
Luke 20:16  He will come and destroy those vinedressers and give the vineyard to others.
 
Olive Tree:
 
Psalm 128:3 Your wife shall be like a fruitful vine in the very heart of your house, Your children like olive plants All around your table. 
Isaiah 17:6  Yet gleaning grapes will be left in it, Like the shaking of an olive tree, Two or three olives at the top of the uppermost bough, Four or five in its most fruitful branches, Says the Lord God of Israel. 
Isaiah 24:13  When it shall be thus in the midst of the land among the people, It shall be like the shaking of an olive tree, Like the gleaning of grapes when the vintage is done. 
Jeremiah 11:16  The Lord called your name, Green Olive Tree, Lovely and of Good Fruit. With the noise of a great tumult He has kindled fire on it, And its branches are broken. 
Hosea 14:6  His branches shall spread; His beauty shall be like an olive tree, And his fragrance like Lebanon. 
Haggai 2:19  Is the seed still in the barn? As yet the vine, the fig tree, the pomegranate, and the olive tree have not yielded fruit. But from this day I will bless you. 
Romans 11:17  And if some of the branches were broken off, and you, being a wild olive tree, were grafted in among them, and with them became a partaker of the root and fatness of the olive tree…
Romans 11:24  For if you were cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and were grafted contrary to nature into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these, who are natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree?  Revelation 11:4  These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands standing before the God of the earth.
 
Fig Tree:
 
Isaiah 34:4  All the host of heaven shall be dissolved, And the heavens shall be rolled up like a scroll; All their host shall fall down As the leaf falls from the vine, And as fruit falling from a fig tree. 
Hosea 9:10  I found Israel Like grapes in the wilderness; I saw your fathers As the firstfruits on the fig tree in its first season.  But they went to Baal Peor, And separated themselves to that shame; They became an abomination…. 
Joel 1:7  He has laid waste My vine, And ruined My fig tree; He has stripped it bare and thrown it away; Its branches are made white. 
Joel 1:12  The vine has dried up, And the fig tree has withered; the pomegranate tree, the palm tree also, and the apple tree— All the trees of the field are withered; Surely joy has withered away from the sons of men. 
Joel 2:22  Do not be afraid, you beasts of the field; For the open pastures are springing up, And the tree bears its fruit; The fig tree and the vine yield their strength. 
Haggai 2:19  Is the seed still in the barn? As yet the vine, the fig tree, the pomegranate, and the olive tree have not yielded fruit. But from this day I will bless you.
Matthew 21:19  And seeing a fig tree by the road, He came to it and found nothing on it but leaves, and said to it, “Let no fruit grow on you ever again.” Immediately the fig tree withered away. 
Matthew 21:20  And when the disciples saw it, they marveled, saying, “How did the fig tree wither away so soon?”  Matthew 21:21  So Jesus answered and said to them, “Assuredly, I say to you, if you have faith and do not doubt, you will not only do what was done to the fig tree, but also if you say to this mountain, ‘Be removed and be cast into the sea,’ it will be done. 
Matthew 24:32  Now learn this parable from the fig tree: When its branch has already become tender and puts forth leaves, you know that summer is near. 
Mark 11:13  And seeing from afar a fig tree having leaves, He went to see if perhaps He would find something on it. When He came to it, He found nothing but leaves, for it was not the season for figs. 
Mark 11:20  Now in the morning, as they passed by, they saw the fig tree dried up from the roots. 
Mark 11:21  And Peter, remembering, said to Him, “Rabbi, look! The fig tree which You cursed has withered away.”  Mark 13:28  Now learn this parable from the fig tree: When its branch has already become tender, and puts forth leaves, you know that summer is near. 
Luke 13:6  …A certain man had a fig tree planted in his vineyard, and he came seeking fruit on it and found none.
Luke 13:7  Then he said to the keeper of his vineyard, ‘Look, for three years I have come seeking fruit on this fig tree and find none. Cut it down; why does it use up the ground?’ 
Luke 21:29  Then He spoke to them a parable: “Look at the fig tree, and all the trees…
James 3:12  Can a fig tree, my brethren, bear olives, or a grapevine bear figs?  
Revelation 6:13  …the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as a fig tree drops its late figs when it is shaken by a mighty wind.
 
 
Branch:
 
Job 15:32  It will be accomplished before his time, And his branch will not be green. 
Job 18:16  His roots are dried out below, And his branch withers above. 
Psalm 80:15  And the vineyard which Your right hand has planted, And the branch that You made strong for Yourself.  Isaiah 4:2  In that day the Branch of the Lord shall be beautiful and glorious; And the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and appealing For those of Israel who have escaped. 
Isaiah 11:1  There shall come forth a Rod from the stem of Jesse, And a Branch shall grow out of his roots.
Isaiah 14:19  But you are cast out of your grave Like an abominable branch, Like the garment of those who are slain, Thrust through with a sword, Who go down to the stones of the pit, Like a corpse trodden underfoot.
Isaiah 17:9  In that day his strong cities will be as a forsaken bough And an uppermost branch, Which they left because of the children of Israel; And there will be desolation.
Isaiah 60:21  Also your people shall all be righteous; They shall inherit the land forever, The branch of My planting, The work of My hands, That I may be glorified. 
Jeremiah 23:5  Behold, the days are coming, says the Lord, That I will raise to David a Branch of righteousness; A King shall reign and prosper, And execute judgment and righteousness in the earth.
Jeremiah 33:15  In those days and at that time I will cause to grow up to David A Branch of righteousness; He shall execute judgment and righteousness in the earth.
Daniel 11:7  But from a branch of her roots one shall arise in his place, who shall come with an army, enter the fortress of the king of the North, and deal with them and prevail. 
Zechariah 3:8  Hear, O Joshua, the high priest, You and your companions who sit before you, For they are a wondrous sign; For behold, I am bringing forth My Servant the BRANCH.
Zechariah 6:12  Then speak to him, saying, ‘Thus says the Lord of hosts, saying: “Behold, the Man whose name is the BRANCH! From His place He shall branch out, And He shall build the temple of the Lord…
Malachi 4:1  For behold, the day is coming, Burning like an oven, And all the proud, yes, all who do wickedly will be stubble. And the day which is coming shall burn them up, Says the Lord of hosts, That will leave them neither root nor branch. 
Matthew 24:32 Now learn this parable from the fig tree: When its branch has already become tender and puts forth leaves, you know that summer is near. 
Mark 13:28 Now learn this parable from the fig tree: When its branch has already become tender, and puts forth leaves, you know that summer is near. 
John 15:2  Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit He takes away; and every branch that bears fruit He prunes, that it may bear more fruit. 
John 15:4  Abide in Me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, unless it abides in the vine, neither can you, unless you abide in Me. 
John 15:6  If anyone does not abide in Me, he is cast out as a branch and is withered; and they gather them and throw them into the fire, and they are burned.

 
Harlotry = Israel’s Unfaithfulness to God
(Israel as a nation is consistently likened to a prostitute in the Old Testament.  God’s people showed themselves to be “stiff-necked” and “uncircumcised in heart” as they repeatedly turned their backs on God while turning their hearts toward other gods, refusing to bend their wills toward God’s.  Ultimately, the perpetually unfaithful Old Covenant Israel proved themselves deserving of God’s divorce.  “At last”, God did indeed take the kingdom away from them and give it to another people.  (Matt. 21))

Exodus 34:15  lest you make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they play the harlot with their gods and make sacrifice to their gods, and one of them invites you and you eat of his sacrifice,
 Exodus 34:16  and you take of his daughters for your sons, and his daughters play the harlot with their gods and make your sons play the harlot with their gods.
Leviticus 20:5  then I will set My face against that man and against his family; and I will cut him off from his people, and all who prostitute themselves with him to commit harlotry with Molech.
Numbers 15:39  And you shall have the tassel, that you may look upon it and remember all the commandments of the Lord and do them, and that you may not follow the harlotry to which your own heart and your own eyes are inclined,
Deuteronomy 31:16  And the Lord said to Moses: “Behold, you will rest with your fathers; and this people will rise and play the harlot with the gods of the foreigners of the land, where they go to be among them, and they will forsake Me and break My covenant which I have made with them.
Judges 2:17 Yet they would not listen to their judges, but they played the harlot with other gods, and bowed down to them. They turned quickly from the way in which their fathers walked, in obeying the commandments of the Lord; they did not do so. 
Judges 8:33  So it was, as soon as Gideon was dead, that the children of Israel again played the harlot with the Baals, and made Baal-Berith their god. 
1 Chronicles 5:25  And they were unfaithful to the God of their fathers, and played the harlot after the gods of the peoples of the land, whom God had destroyed before them. 
2 Chronicles 21:11  Moreover he made high places in the mountains of Judah, and caused the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit harlotry, and led Judah astray.
2 Chronicles 21:13  but have walked in the way of the kings of Israel, and have made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to play the harlot like the harlotry of the house of Ahab, and also have killed your brothers, those of your father’s household, who were better than yourself,
Psalm 106:39  Thus they were defiled by their own works, And played the harlot by their own deeds.
Isaiah 1:21  How the faithful city has become a harlot! It was full of justice; Righteousness lodged in it, But now murderers.
Jeremiah 2:20  “For of old I have broken your yoke and burst your bonds; And you said, ‘I will not transgress,’ When on every high hill and under every green tree You lay down, playing the harlot. 
Jeremiah 3:1  “They say, ‘If a man divorces his wife, And she goes from him And becomes another man’s, May he return to her again?’ Would not that land be greatly polluted? But you have played the harlot with many lovers; Yet return to Me,” says the Lord.
Jeremiah 3:2  “Lift up your eyes to the desolate heights and see: Where have you not lain with men? By the road you have sat for them Like an Arabian in the wilderness; And you have polluted the land With your harlotries and your wickedness.
Jeremiah 13:27  I have seen your adulteries And your lustful neighings, The lewdness of your harlotry, Your abominations on the hills in the fields. Woe to you, O Jerusalem! Will you still not be made clean?” 
Ezekiel 16:15  “But you trusted in your own beauty, played the harlot because of your fame, and poured out your harlotry on everyone passing by who would have it. 
Ezekiel 16:17  You have also taken your beautiful jewelry from My gold and My silver, which I had given you, and made for yourself male images and played the harlot with them.
Ezekiel 16:28  You also played the harlot with the Assyrians, because you were insatiable; indeed you played the harlot with them and still were not satisfied. 
Ezekiel 16:35  Now then, O harlot, hear the word of the Lord!
Hosea 4:12  My people ask counsel from their wooden idols, And their staff informs them. For the spirit of harlotry has caused them to stray, And they have played the harlot against their God. 
Hosea 4:13  They offer sacrifices on the mountaintops, And burn incense on the hills, Under oaks, poplars, and terebinths, Because their shade is good. Therefore your daughters commit harlotry, And your brides commit adultery.
Hosea 5:3  I know Ephraim, And Israel is not hidden from Me; For now, O Ephraim, you commit harlotry; Israel is defiled.
Micah 1:7  All her carved images shall be beaten to pieces, And all her pay as a harlot shall be burned with the fire; All her idols I will lay desolate, For she gathered it from the pay of a harlot, And they shall return to the pay of a harlot.”
James 4:4  Adulterers and adulteresses! Do you not know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Whoever therefore wants to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. 
Revelation 17:1  Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and talked with me, saying to me, “Come, I will show you the judgment of the great harlot who sits on many waters, 
Revelation 17:5  And on her forehead a name was written: MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND OF THE ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.
Revelation 17:15  Then he said to me, “The waters which you saw, where the harlot sits, are peoples, multitudes, nations, and tongues. 
Revelation 17:16 And the ten horns which you saw on the beast, these will hate the harlot, make her desolate and naked, eat her flesh and burn her with fire. 
Revelation 19:2  For true and righteous are His judgments, because He has judged the great harlot who corrupted the earth with her fornication; and He has avenged on her the blood of His servants shed by her.”

 
Sodom, Egypt, Babylon
(Israel Likened to, Associated with, or Called by Another Ungodly Nation’s Name)
 (For Israel to mimic the ungodly characteristics and behaviors of their neighboring nations was to be no better than those very nations.  In fact, it was worse.  Throughout Israel’s history, God was disappointed with Israel as they neglected to separate themselves and remain a “holy” nation, consecrated to the Lord.  The prophets often reminded them of this as by associating Israel with ungodly nations and/or calling them by the very same names.  To act in accordance with another nation’s moral depravity was to take on that nation’s very characteristics…thus their name)
 
Deuteronomy 32:32:  For their vine is of the vine of Sodom and the fields of Gomorrah…
Isaiah 1:10  Hear the word of the Lord, You rulers of Sodom; Give ear to the law of our God, You people of Gomorrah: Isaiah 3:9  The look on their countenance witnesses against them, And they declare their sin as Sodom; They do not hide it. Woe to their soul! For they have brought evil upon themselves. 
Isaiah 34:5,6  For my sword shall be bathed in heaven; Indeed it shall come down on Edom, And on the people of my curse, for judgment….And a great slaughter in the land of Edom. 
Jeremiah 23:14  Also I have seen a horrible thing in the prophets of Jerusalem: They commit adultery and walk in lies; They also strengthen the hands of evildoers, So that no one turns back from his wickedness. All of them are like Sodom to Me, And her inhabitants like Gomorrah. 
Ezekiel 16:46  Your elder sister is Samaria, who dwells with her daughters to the north of you; and your younger sister, who dwells to the south of you, is Sodom and her daughters. 
Ezekiel 16:48  “As I live,” says the Lord God, “neither your sister Sodom nor her daughters have done as you and your daughters have done. 
Ezekiel 16:49  Look, this was the iniquity of your sister Sodom: She and her daughter had pride, fullness of food, and abundance of idleness; neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. 
Ezekiel 23:4,22,33   Samaria is Oholah, and Jerusalem is Oholibah…. 
Jeremiah 9:26  Egypt, Judah, Edom, the people of Ammon, Moab, and all who are in the farthest corners, who dwell in the wilderness. For all these nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart.
Jeremiah 44:8  in that you provoke Me to wrath with the works of your hands, burning incense to other gods in the land of Egypt where you have gone to dwell, that you may cut yourselves off and be a curse and a reproach among all the nations of the earth… 
Ezekiel 16:26  You also committed harlotry with the Egyptians, your very fleshly neighbors, and increased your acts of harlotry to provoke Me to anger. 
Ezekiel 23:3  They committed harlotry in Egypt, They committed harlotry in their youth…  
Amos 9:7  Are you not like the people of Ethiopia to me, O children of Israel? Says the Lord 
Revelation 11:8  And their dead bodies will lie in the street of the great city which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified.

Latter Days/Last Days
(What are the “latter days” of the Old Testament referring to?  Future to the original audience of course…..but are they future to us?  No.  Proper exegesis of the verses below prove difficult to ascribe fulfillment to any other time period after the latter days of the Old Covenant era…that is, the end of the Old Covenant age recorded in the New Testament, sometimes referred to as the “transition period” (AD 30-AD70).  The “latter days”, “last days”, “end of days”, “time of the end”, and the “end of the age” ALL refer to the same time period…the final days of the Old Covenant) 
  
Genesis 49:1  And Jacob called his sons and said, “Gather together, that I may tell you what shall befall you in the last days:
Numbers 24:14  And now, indeed, I am going to my people. Come, I will advise you what this people will do to your people in the latter days.
Deuteronomy 4:30  When you are in distress, and all these things come upon you in the latter days, when you turn to the Lord your God and obey His voice.
Deuteronomy 31:29  For I know that after my death you will become utterly corrupt, and turn aside from the way which I have commanded you. And evil will befall you in the latter days, because you will do evil in the sight of the Lord, to provoke Him to anger through the work of your hands.
Isaiah 2:2  Now it shall come to pass in the latter days That the mountain of the Lord’s house Shall be established on the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And all nations shall flow to it.
Jeremiah 23:20  The anger of the Lord will not turn back Until He has executed and performed the thoughts of His heart. In the latter days you will understand it perfectly. 
Jeremiah 30:24  The fierce anger of the Lord will not return until He has done it, And until He has performed the intents of His heart. In the latter days you will consider it. 
Jeremiah 48:47  “Yet I will bring back the captives of Moab In the latter days,” says the Lord. Thus far is the judgment of Moab.
Jeremiah 49:39  ‘But it shall come to pass in the latter days: I will bring back the captives of Elam,’ says the Lord.”  Ezekiel 38:8  After many days you will be visited. In the latter years you will come into the land of those brought back from the sword and gathered from many people on the mountains of Israel, which had long been desolate; they were brought out of the nations, and now all of them dwell safely. 
Ezekiel 38:16  You will come up against My people Israel like a cloud, to cover the land. It will be in the latter days that I will bring you against My land, so that the nations may know Me, when I am hallowed in you, O Gog, before their eyes.
Daniel 2:28  But there is a God in heaven who reveals secrets, and He has made known to King Nebuchadnezzar what will be in the latter days. Your dream, and the visions of your head upon your bed, were these…
Daniel 10:14  Now I have come to make you understand what will happen to your people in the latter days, for the vision refers to many days yet to come.
Hosea 3:5  Afterward the children of Israel shall return and seek the Lord their God and David their king. They shall fear the Lord and His goodness in the latter days. 
Micah 4:1  Now it shall come to pass in the latter days That the mountain of the Lord’s house Shall be established on the top of the mountains, And shall be exalted above the hills; And peoples shall flow to it. 
 
Dust:
(While “aphar”, the Hebrew word for “dust” (110 occurrences in the Old Testament) certainly can and often does refer to literal, physical matter, the word sometimes carries with it the connotation of a lowly, humble condition, and/or mortality itself.  The association between dust and mortality would not have escaped the meaning of the Hebrew reader.  To the Hebrew, being “formed from dust” then, was not so much a statement of material origins as much as it was a recognition of their mortal human condition, and the inevitable results therein.  In short, “dust” often conveyed one’s destiny, essence, and identity…not one’s substance or physical origins)  

Genesis 3:19  By the sweat of your face You will eat bread, Till you return to the ground, Because from it you were taken; For you are dust, And to dust you shall return.”
Genesis 18:27  And Abraham replied, “Now behold, I have ventured to speak to the Lord, although I am but dust and ashes.
1 Samuel 2:8  He raises the poor from the dust, He lifts the needy from the ash heap To make them sit with nobles, And inherit a seat of honor; For the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, And He set the world on them.
1 Kings 16:2  Inasmuch as I lifted you out of the dust and made you ruler over My people Israel, and you have walked in the way of Jeroboam, and have made My people Israel sin, to provoke Me to anger with their sins,
Job 7:5  My flesh is caked with worms and dust, My skin is cracked and breaks out afresh.
Job 7:21  Why then do You not pardon my transgression And take away my iniquity? For now I will lie down in the dust; And You will seek me, but I will not be.
Job 20:11  His bones are full of his youthful vigor, But it will lie down with him in the dust.
Job 17:6  Will it go down with me to Sheol? Shall we together go down into the dust?
Job 19:25  That -- I have known my Redeemer, The Living and the Last, For the dust he doth rise.
Job 21:26  Together they lie down in the dust, And worms cover them.
Job 34:15  All flesh would perish together, And man would return to dust.
Psalm 7:5  Let the enemy pursue me and overtake me; Yes, let him trample my life to the earth, And lay my honor in the dust. 
Psalm 22:15  My strength is dried up like a potsherd, And My tongue clings to My jaws; You have brought Me to the dust of death.
Psalm 44:25  For our soul has sunk down into the dust; Our body cleaves to the earth.
Psalm 103:14  For He knows our frame; He remembers that we are dust.
Psalm 113:7  He raises the poor out of the dust, And lifts the needy out of the ash heap 
Psalm 119:25  My soul clings to the dust; Revive me according to Your word.
Ecclesiastes 3:30  All go to the same place. All came from the dust and all return to the dust.
Ecclesiastes 12:7  Then the dust will return to the earth as it was, And the spirit will return to God who gave it.
Isaiah 26:19  Your dead shall live; Together with my dead body they shall arise. Awake and sing, you who dwell in dust; For your dew is like the dew of herbs, And the earth shall cast out the dead.
Isaiah 29:4  Then you will be brought low; From the earth you will speak, And from the dust where you are prostrate Your words will come. Your voice will also be like that of a spirit from the ground, And your speech will whisper from the dust.
Isaiah 52: 1-3  Awake, awake, Clothe yourself in your strength, O Zion; Clothe yourself in your beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city; For the uncircumcised and the unclean Will no longer come into you.  Shake thyself from the dust; arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem: loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion.  For thus says the LORD, "You were sold for nothing and you will be redeemed without money."
Daniel 12:2  And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, Some to everlasting life, Some to shame and everlasting contempt.

 
Resurrection (To Raise up, To Stand, To Awake, To Live) :
(Jesus made it clear that His kingdom was NOT a physical kingdom.  Yet, those employing tunnel-vision exegesis, using only a few New Testament passages, have missed the point completely.  Popular teaching insists on a future bodily resurrection where brand new and glorified physical bodies will burst out of the graves and reunite with their spirits.  Not so.  In truth, resurrection is a multi-faceted concept in Scripture.  There is a corporate, individual, and Hadean realm reality…and these concepts begin to develop in the Old Testament, and culminating in the Apostles New Testament teachings.  First, resurrection was the hope of and promise to Old Testament Israel.  The Old Testament uses phrases such as “raise up” “stand up” “awake”, and “live” to convey a concept….the idea of a dead and broken relationship being restored back to “life”.  Corporately speaking, Israel as a people had become “dead” to God and were in dire need of resurrection back into the “life” of a Covenant relationship with God….a new “stance” before God.  Further, to dwell in the land was considered “life”.  To be outside of the land, away from God’s people and the temple was to be “cut off” from the life of God’s covenant community.  So then, the resurrection the first century Christians looked forward to was the recovery of relational death between man and God, and that resurrection came through Christ)     
 
Numbers 23:24  Behold, a people rises like a lioness, And as a lion it lifts itself; It will not lie down until it devours the prey, And drinks the blood of the slain.
Numbers 24:17  I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth.
Judges 3:9  When the sons of Israel cried to the LORD, the LORD raised up a deliverer for the sons of Israel to deliver them, Othniel the son of Kenaz, Caleb's younger brother.
1 Samuel 2:8  He raises the poor from the dust, He lifts the needy from the ash heap To make them sit with nobles, And inherit a seat of honor; For the pillars of the earth are the Lord’s, And He set the world on them.
Psalm 17:15  As for me, I shall behold Your face in righteousness; I will be satisfied with Your likeness when I awake.
Isaiah 26:18-19  We were pregnant, we writhed in labor, We gave birth, as it seems, only to wind. We could not accomplish deliverance for the earth, Nor were inhabitants of the world born.  Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust: for thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead.
Daniel 12:2  And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, Some to everlasting life, Some to shame and everlasting contempt.
Daniel 12:13  But as for you, go your way to the end; then you will enter into rest and rise again for your allotted portion at the end of the age.
Amos 5:2  She has fallen, she will not rise again-- The virgin Israel. She lies neglected on her land; There is none to raise her up.
Hosea 6:2  He will revive us after two days; He will raise us up on the third day, That we may live before Him. 
Isaiah 49:5-6  And now says the LORD, who formed Me from the womb to be His Servant, To bring Jacob back to Him, so that Israel might be gathered to Him (For I am honored in the sight of the LORD, And My God is My strength), He says, "It is too small a thing that You should be My Servant To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to restore the preserved ones of Israel; I will also make You a light of the nations So that My salvation may reach to the end of the earth."
Ezekiel 37:6, 9,14  And I will lay sinews upon you, and will cause flesh to come upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and you shall live, and you shall know that I am the LORD…..Then he said to me, Prophesy to the breath; prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath, Thus says the Lord GOD: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe on these slain, that they may live….And I will put my Spirit within you, and you shall live, and I will place you in your own land. Then you shall know that I am the LORD; I have spoken, and I will do it, declares the LORD.
Zechariah 14:9-11  And the LORD will be king over all the earth; in that day the LORD will be the only one, and His name the only one.  All the land will be changed into a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem; but Jerusalem will rise and remain on its site from Benjamin's Gate as far as the place of the First Gate to the Corner Gate, and from the Tower of Hananel to the king's wine presses.  People will live in it, and there will no longer be a curse, for Jerusalem will dwell in security.
Malachi 4:1-3  And For behold, the day is coming, burning like a furnace; and all the arrogant and every evildoer will be chaff; and the day that is coming will set them ablaze," says the LORD of hosts, "so that it will leave them neither root nor branch.  But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall.  You will tread down the wicked, for they will be ashes under the soles of your feet on the day which I am preparing," says the LORD of hosts.
Micah 7:7-10  And But as for me, I will watch expectantly for the LORD; I will wait for the God of my salvation. My God will hear me.  Do not rejoice over me, O my enemy. Though I fall I will rise; Though I dwell in darkness, the LORD is a light for me.  I will bear the indignation of the LORD Because I have sinned against Him, Until He pleads my case and executes justice for me. He will bring me out to the light, And I will see His righteousness.  Then my enemy will see, And shame will cover her who said to me, "Where is the LORD your God?" My eyes will look on her; At that time she will be trampled down Like mire of the streets.
Isaiah 60: 1-3  Arise, shine; for your light has come, And the glory of the LORD has risen upon you.  For behold, darkness will cover the earth And deep darkness the peoples; But the LORD will rise upon you And His glory will appear upon you.  Nations will come to your light, And kings to the brightness of your rising.
Isaiah 52: 1-3  Awake, awake, Clothe yourself in your strength, O Zion; Clothe yourself in your beautiful garments, O Jerusalem, the holy city; For the uncircumcised and the unclean Will no longer come into you.  Shake thyself from the dust; arise, and sit down, O Jerusalem: loose thyself from the bands of thy neck, O captive daughter of Zion.  For thus says the LORD, "You were sold for nothing and you will be redeemed without money."

Life and Death:
(An overly literal mindset will only consider “death” to mean physical death and “life” to mean physical life.  But biblically speaking, the idea of death is not always physical.  Connected to the resurrection, the concept of life and death is often in terms of spiritual life, eternal life, relational life, or covenantal life.  This becomes abundantly clear when we see how Jesus used the words “life” and “death” in his conversations and teachings)
 
Hosea 13:1  When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling. He exalted himself in Israel, But through Baal he did wrong and died.
Hosea 13:14   Shall I ransom them from the power of Sheol? Shall I redeem them from death? O Death, where are your thorns? O Sheol, where is your sting? Compassion will be hidden from My sight
Isaiah 26:18-19  We were pregnant, we writhed in labor, We gave birth, as it seems, only to wind. We could not accomplish deliverance for the earth, Nor were inhabitants of the world born.  Your dead shall live; their bodies shall rise. You who dwell in the dust, awake and sing for joy! For your dew is a dew of light, and the earth will give birth to the dead.
Isaiah 59:10  We grope along the wall like blind men.  We grope like those who have no eyes; We stumble at midday as in the twilight.  Among those who are vigorous we are like dead men.
Matthew 8:22  But Jesus said to him, "Follow Me, and allow the dead to bury their own dead."
John 5:24   Truly, truly, I say to you, he who hears My word, and believes Him who sent Me, has eternal life, and does not come into judgment, but has passed out of death into life.
John 8:51  Truly, truly, I say to you, if anyone keeps My word he will never see death.
John 11:25-26  Jesus said to her, "I am the resurrection and the life; he who believes in Me will live even if he dies, and everyone who lives and believes in Me will never die.
Ephesians 2:5   even when we were dead in our transgressions, made us alive together with Christ (by grace you have been saved),
Luke 15:24  for this son of mine was dead and has come to life again; he was lost and has been found.

The End/End of the Ages:
(Does the Bible teach the “end” of the world?  Or does the Bible teach the end of one age, and the inauguration of another?  Nations certainly came to their “end” as a result of God’s judgment, but an end of the world (planet earth) is absent from scripture.  Proper exegesis of the verses below prove impossible to ascribefulfillment to any other time period other than:
A) the “end” to a particular nation (whether an end to their sovereignty, or a literal end as an existing nation,
B ) the “end” of the Old Covenant era.  The “end times” in Scripture are simply the end of the Old Covenant and the beginning of the New Covenant, that “all things” might be fulfilled in Christ, the Messiah, exactly who and what the Old Testament prophets had been looking for)


Ezekiel 7:2  “And you, son of man, thus says the Lord GOD to the land of Israel: ‘An end! The end has come upon the four corners of the land.
Ezekiel 7:3  Now the end has come upon you, And I will send My anger against you; I will judge you according to your ways, And I will repay you for all your abominations.
Ezekiel 7:6  An end has come, The end has come; It has dawned for you; Behold, it has come!
Daniel 8:17  So he came near where I stood, and when he came I was afraid and fell on my face; but he said to me, “Understand, son of man, that the vision refers to the time of the end.”
Daniel 8:19  And he said, “Look, I am making known to you what shall happen in the latter time of the indignation; for at the appointed time the end shall be.
Daniel 9:26  “And after the sixty-two weeks Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself; And the people of the prince who is to come Shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end of it shall be with a flood, And till the end of the war desolations are determined.
Daniel 11:27  …but it shall not prosper, for the end will still be at the appointed time. 
Daniel 12:4 “But you, Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book until the time of the end; many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall increase.”
Daniel 12:9  And he said, “Go your way, Daniel, for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end.
1 Corinthians 10:11  Now all these things happened to them as examples, and they were written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages have come.
1 Corinthians 15:24  Then comes the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power.
Hebrews 3:6  but Christ as a Son over His own house, whose house we are if we hold fast the confidence and the rejoicing of the hope firm to the end.
Hebrews 3:14  For we have become partakers of Christ if we hold the beginning of our confidence steadfast to the end,
Hebrews 6:11  And we desire that each one of you show the same diligence to the full assurance of hope until the end,
Hebrews 9:26  He then would have had to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now, once at the end of the ages, He has appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself.
1 Peter 4:7  But the end of all things is at hand; therefore be serious and watchful in your prayers.
Matthew 13:39  The enemy who sowed them is the devil, the harvest is the end of the age, and the reapers are the angels.
Matthew 13:40  Therefore as the tares are gathered and burned in the fire, so it will be at the end of this age.
Matthew 13:49  So it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come forth, separate the wicked from among the just,
Matthew 24:3  Now as He sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to Him privately, saying, “Tell us, when will these things be? And what will be the sign of Your coming, and of the end of the age?”
Matthew 24:6  And you will hear of wars and rumors of wars. See that you are not troubled; for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.
Matthew 24:13  But he who endures to the end shall be saved.
Matthew 24:14  And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world as a witness to all the nations, and then the end will come.
Matthew 28:20  …teaching them to observe all things that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.  Amen.


 
The Last Hour/Last Day/Last Time:
(Similarly to “the end”, the “last day” and “last hour” does NOT refer to a future (to us) end of the world (planet earth).  Rather, the last days and hours were the final days and hours of the Old Covenant order?  As the transition period rolled on, the epistles demonstrate a growing sense of urgency/imminence as the “last days” became the “last hour”.  Again, it is difficult to ascribe fulfillment to “the last hour” and “last day” to any other time period other than the final days of the Old Covenant system just prior to the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple…during the transition period)


2 Timothy 3:1  But mark this: there will be terrible times in the last days.
1 Peter 1:5  who are kept by the power of God through faith for salvation ready to be revealed in the last time.
1 Peter 1:20  He indeed was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you
Jude 1:18  They said to you, “In the last times there will be scoffers who will follow their own ungodly desires.”
1 John 2:18  Dear children, this is the last hour; and as you have heard that the antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have come. This is how we know it is the last hour.
John 4:21  “Woman, believe Me, the hour is coming when you will neither on this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, worship the Father.
John 4:23  But the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth; for the Father is seeking such to worship Him.
John 5:25  Most assuredly, I say to you, the hour is coming, and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God; and those who hear will live.
John 5:28  Do not marvel at this; for the hour is coming in which all who are in the graves will hear His voice
John 12:27  “Now My soul is troubled, and what shall I say? ‘Father, save Me from this hour’? But for this purpose I came to this hour.
John 6:39  This is the will of the Father who sent Me, that of all He has given Me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up at the last day.
John 6:40  And this is the will of Him who sent Me, that everyone who sees the Son and believes in Him may have everlasting life; and I will raise him up at the last day.
John 6:44  No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day.
John 6:54  Whoever eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.
John 11:24  Martha said to Him, “I know that he will rise again in the resurrection at the last day.”
John 12:48  He who rejects Me, and does not receive My words, has that which judges him—the word that I have spoken will judge him in the last day.
Acts 2:17   ‘And it shall come to pass in the last days, says God, That I will pour out of My Spirit on all flesh; Your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your young men shall see visions, Your old men shall dream dreams.
Hebrews 1:2  has in these last days spoken to us by His Son, whom He has appointed heir of all things, through whom also He made the worlds;
James 5:3  Your gold and silver are corroded, and their corrosion will be a witness against you and will eat your flesh like fire. You have heaped up treasure in the last days.
2 Peter 3:3  knowing this first: that scoffers will come in the last days, walking according to their own lusts,
Matthew 24:36  But of that day and hour no one knows, not even the angels of heaven, nor the Son, but the Father alone.
Matthew 24:42  Watch therefore, for you do not know what hour your Lord is coming
Matthew 24:44  Therefore you also be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.
Matthew 25:13  Watch therefore, for you know neither the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming.
Matthew 26:45  Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners.
Mark 14:41  Then He came the third time and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting? It is enough! The hour has come; behold, the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners.
Luke 12:40 Therefore you also be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.”
Luke 12:46  The master of that servant will come on a day when he is not looking for him, and at an hour when he is not aware, and will cut him in two and appoint him his portion with the unbelievers.
Luke 22:53  When I was with you daily in the temple, you did not try to seize Me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.”
Romans 13:11  And do this, understanding the present time: The hour has already come for you to wake up from your slumber, because our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed.
Revelation 3:10  Since you have kept my command to endure patiently, I will also kee p you from the hour of trial that is going to come on the whole world to test the inhabiants of the earth.
 

 
Near/Soon/At Hand/Shortly:
(Does “near” ever really mean “far”?  Is it possible for something that is said to be “at hand” and coming “shortly” to really be thousands of years in the future?  No.  God speaks to man “anthropomorphically”, that is, in a way man can understand Him.  God does not play games with words to confuse man.  He does the opposite in fact.  He speaks to mankind so that he can clearly understand.  The biblical record is consistent.  Throughout the Old Testament, events that were said to be “near” and “soon” to the original audience actually occurred soon to them, in contrast to “far off”)
        
 


Deuteronomy 32:35  Vengeance is Mine, and recompense; their foot shall slip in due time; For the day of their calamity is at hand, And the things to come hasten upon them.’
Jeremiah 48:16  The calamity of Moab is near at hand, and his affliction comes quickly.
Ezekiel 7:7  Doom has come to you, you who dwell in the land; the time has come, a day of trouble is near, and not of rejoicing  in the mountains.
Ezekiel 30:3  For the day is near, Even the day of the LORD is near; It will be a day of clouds, the time of the Gentiles.
Joel 3:14  Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision!  For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision.
Obadiah 1:15  “For the day of the LORD upon all the nations is near; as you have done, it shall be done to you” Zephaniah1:14  The great day of the LORD is near; It is near and hastens quickly. The noise of the day of the LORD is bitter; there the mighty men shall cry out.
Isaiah 13:6  Wail, for the day of the LORD is at hand! It will come as destruction from the Almighty.
Jeremiah 48:16  The calamity of Moab is near at hand, And his affliction comes quickly.
Ezekiel 12:23  Tell them therefore, Thus says the Lord GOD: I will lay this proverb to rest, and they shall no more use it as a proverb in Israel.  But say to them, The days are at hand, and the fulfillment of every vision.
Joel 1:15  Alas for the day! For the day of the LORD is at hand; It shall come as destruction from the Almighty.
Joel 2:1  Blow the trumpet in Zion, And sound an alarm in My holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble; For the day of the LORD is coming, For it is at hand:
Zephaniah 1:7  Be silent in the presence of the Lord GOD; For the day of the LORD is at hand, For the LORD has prepared a sacrifice; He has invited His guests.
Ezekiel 7:8  Now upon you I will soon pour out My fury, And spend My anger upon you; I will judge you according to your ways, And I will repay you for all your abominations.
Jeremiah 27:16  Also I spoke to the priests and to all this people, saying, “Thus says the LORD: ‘Do not listen to the words of your prophets who prophesy to you, saying, “Behold, the vessels of the LORD’s house will now shortly be brought back from Babylon”; for they prophesy a lie to you.
Matthew 24:32  Now learn this parable from the fig tree: When its branch has already become tender and puts forth leaves, you know that summer is near.
Matthew 24:33  So you also, when you see all these things, know that it is near—at the doors!
Mark 13:28  Now learn this parable from the fig tree: When its branch has already become tender, and puts forth leaves, you know that summer is near.
Mark 13:29  So you also, when you see these things happening, know that it is near—at the doors!
Luke 21:20  But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation is near.
Luke 21:31  So you also, when you see these things happening, know that the kingdom of God is near.
Revelation 1:3  Blessed is he who reads and those who hear the words of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written in it; for the time is near.
Matthew 3:2  and saying, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand!”
Matthew 4:17  From that time Jesus began to preach and to say, “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”
Matthew 10:7  And as you go, preach, saying, ‘The kingdom of heaven is at hand.’
Matthew 26:18  And He said, “Go into the city to a certain man, and say to him, ‘The Teacher says, “My time is at hand; I will keep the Passover at your house with My disciples.”
Matthew 26:45  Then He came to His disciples and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and resting?  Behold, the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man is being betrayed into the hands of sinners.
Matthew 26:46  Rise, let us be going. See, My betrayer is at hand.
Romans 13:12  The night is far spent, the day is at hand. Therefore let us cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armor of light.
Mark 1:15  and saying, “The time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the gospel.”
Mark 14:42  Rise, let us be going. See, My betrayer is at hand.
John 2:13  Now the Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.
John 7:2   Now the Jews’ Feast of Tabernacles was at hand.
Philippians 4:5  Let your gentleness be known to all men. The Lord is at hand.
2 Timothy 4:6  For I am already being poured out as a drink offering, and the time of my departure is at hand.
James 5:8  You also be patient. Establish your hearts, for the coming of the Lord is at hand.
1 Peter 4:7  But the end of all things is at hand; therefore be serious and watchful in your prayers.
Revelation 22:10  And he said to me, “Do not seal the words of the prophecy of this book, for the time is at hand.
Acts 25:4  But Festus answered that Paul should be kept at Caesarea, and that he himself was going there shortly.  Romans 16:20  And the God of peace will crush Satan under your feet shortly. The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you. Amen.
1 Corinthians 4:19  But I will come to you shortly, if the Lord wills, and I will know, not the word of those who are puffed up, but the power.
Philippians 2:19  But I trust in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you shortly, that I also may be encouraged when I know your state.
Philippians 2:24  But I trust in the Lord that I myself shall also come shortly.
1 Timothy 3:14  These things I write to you, though I hope to come to you shortly;
Hebrews 13:23  Know that our brother Timothy has been set free, with whom I shall see you if he comes shortly.
2 Peter 1:14  knowing that shortly I must put off my tent, just as our Lord Jesus Christ showed me.
3 John 1:14  but I hope to see you shortly, and we shall speak face to face. Peace to you. Our friends greet you. Greet the friends by name.
Revelation 1:1  The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show His servants—things which must shortly take place. And He sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John,
Revelation 22:6  Then he said to me, “These words are faithful and true.” And the Lord God of the holy prophets sent His angel to show His servants the things which must shortly take place.